PIVOT

Privacy-Integrated design and Validation in the constrained IoT

Publications

  1. M. S. Lenders, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Fragment Forwarding in Lossy Networks,” IEEE Access, 2021,


    Abstract: This paper evaluates four forwarding strategies for fragmented datagrams in the IoT on top of the common CSMA/CA MAC implementation for IEEE 802.15.4: hop-wise reassembly, a minimal approach to direct forwarding of fragments, classic end-to-end fragmentation, and direct forwarding utilizing selective fragment recovery. Additionally, we evaluate congestion control mechanisms for selective fragment recovery by increasing the feature set of congestion control. Direct fragment forwarding and selective fragment recovery are challenged by the lack of forwarding information at subsequent fragments in 6LoWPAN and thus require additional data at the nodes. We compare the four approaches in extensive experiments evaluating reliability, end-to-end latency, and memory consumption. Our findings indicate that direct fragment forwarding should be deployed with care, since higher packet transmission rates on the link layer can significantly reduce its reliability, which in turn can even further reduce end-to-end latency because of highly increased link layer retransmissions. Selective fragment recovery can compensate this disadvantage but struggles with the same problem underneath, constraining its full potential. Congestion control for selective fragment recovery should be chosen so that small congestion windows that are growable together with fragment pacing are used. In case of less fragments per datagram, pacing is less of a concern, but the congestion window has an upper bound.


    
                 @article{lsw-ffln-21,
      author = {Lenders, Martine S. and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Fragment Forwarding in Lossy Networks}},
      journal = {IEEE Access},
      year = {2021},
      volume = {},
      number = {},
      pages = {},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3121557},
      code = {https://github.com/anr-bmbf-pivot/IEEE-Access-6LoWPAN-2021},
      file = {../papers/lsw-ffln-21.pdf},
      theme = {iot|manet},
      note = {early access}
    }
    
               

  2. L. Lanzieri, P. Kietzmann, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Poster Abstract: Third Party Authorization of LwM2M Clients,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Internet of Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 263–264, 2021.


    Abstract: Communication scenarios between IoT client nodes within an authenticated and authorized regime comprise emerging use cases for modern edge applications in the IoT, but unfortunately are not supported by current management schemes such as LwM2M. In this poster, we propose an authorization mechanism for LwM2M clients for gaining access to resources hosted by other clients. Access rights are issued by LwM2M servers. We introduce a new LwM2M interface and new LwM2M objects with minimal backwards-compatible changes to the core specification.


    
                 @inproceedings{lksw-tpalc-21,
      author = {Lanzieri, Leandro and Kietzmann, Peter and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Poster Abstract: Third Party Authorization of LwM2M Clients}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Internet of Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI)},
      pages = {263--264},
      year = {2021},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      location = {Virtual},
      file = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3450268.3453512},
      theme = {iot|nsec}
    }
    
               

  3. C. Gündogan, C. Amsüss, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Content Object Security in the Internet of Things: Challenges, Prospects, and Emerging Solutions,” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (TNSM), 2021,


    Abstract: Content objects are confined data elements that carry meaningful information. Massive amounts of content objects are published and exchanged every day on the Internet. The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) augments the network edge with reading sensors and controlling actuators that comprise machine-to-machine communication using small data objects. IoT content objects are often messages that fit into single IPv6 datagram. These IoT messages frequently traverse protocol translators at gateways, which break end-to-end transport and security of Internet protocols. To preserve content security from end to end via gateways and proxies, the IETF recently developed Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments (OSCORE), which extends the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) with content object security features commonly known from Information Centric Networking (ICN). This paper revisits the current IoT protocol architectures and presents a comparative analysis of protocol stacks that protect request-response transactions. We discuss features and limitations of the different protocols and analyze emerging functional extensions. We measure the protocol performances of CoAP over Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS), OSCORE, and the information-centric Named Data Networking (NDN) protocol on a large-scale IoT testbed in single- and multi-hop scenarios. Our findings indicate that (a) OSCORE improves on CoAP over DTLS in error-prone wireless regimes due to omitting the overhead of maintaining security sessions at endpoints, (b) NDN attains superior robustness and reliability due to its intrinsic network caches and hop-wise retransmissions, and (c) OSCORE/CoAP offers room for improvement and optimization in multiple directions.


    
                 @article{gasw-cosit-21,
      author = {G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Content Object Security in the Internet of Things: Challenges, Prospects, and Emerging Solutions}},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (TNSM)},
      year = {2021},
      volume = {},
      number = {},
      pages = {},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/TNSM.2021.3099902},
      theme = {iot|icn|nsec}
    }
    
               

  4. C. Gündogan, C. Amsüss, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Reliable Firmware Updates for the Information-Centric Internet of Things,” Proc. of 8th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN). ACM, New York, pp. 59–70, Sep. 2021.


    Abstract: Security in the Internet of Things (IoT) requires ways to regularly update firmware in the field. These demands ever increase with new, agile concepts such as security as code and should be considered a regular operation. Hosting massive firmware roll-outs present a crucial challenge for the constrained wireless environment. In this paper, we explore how information-centric networking can ease reliable firmware updates. We start from the recent standards developed by the IETF SUIT working group and contribute a system that allows for a timely discovery of new firmware versions by using cryptographically protected manifest files. Our design enables a cascading firmware roll-out from a gateway towards leaf nodes in a low-power multi-hop network. While a chunking mechanism prepares firmware images for typically low-sized maximum transmission units (MTUs), an early Denial-of-Service (DoS) detection prevents the distribution of tampered or malformed chunks. In experimental evaluations on a real-world IoT testbed, we demonstrate feasible strategies with adaptive bandwidth consumption and a high resilience to connectivity loss when replicating firmware images into the IoT edge.


    
                 @inproceedings{gasw-rfuii-21,
      author = {G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Reliable Firmware Updates for the Information-Centric Internet of Things}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 8th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York},
      location = {Virtual},
      year = {2021},
      month = sep,
      pages = {59--70},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3460417.3482974},
      theme = {iot|icn}
    }
    
               

  5. C. Gündogan, C. Amsüss, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Group Communication with OSCORE: RESTful Multiparty Access to a Data-Centric Web of Things,” Proc. of the 46th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp. 399–402, Oct. 2021.


    Abstract: Content replication to many destinations is common in the IoT. IP multicast has proven inefficient due to a missing layer-2 support by IoT radios and its synchronous end-to-end transmission, which is susceptible to interference. Information-centric networking (ICN) introduced hop-wise multiparty dissemination of cacheable content, which proves valuable for lossy networks. Even Named-Data Networking (NDN), a prominent ICN, suffers from a lack of deployment. We explore a multiparty content distribution in an information-centric Web of Things built on CoAP. We augment CoAP proxies by request aggregation and response replication, which together with caches enable asynchronous group communication. Further, we integrate object security with OSCORE into the CoAP multicast proxy system for ubiquitous caching of certified content. We compare NDN, CoAP, and our data-centric approach in testbed experiments. Our findings indicate that multiparty content distribution with CoAP proxies performs equally well as NDN, while remaining compatible with the protocol world of CoAP.


    
                 @inproceedings{gasw-gcorm-21,
      author = {G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Group Communication with OSCORE: RESTful Multiparty Access to a Data-Centric Web of Things}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the 46th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN)},
      month = oct,
      year = {2021},
      pages = {399--402},
      publisher = {IEEE Press},
      address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
      location = {Edmonton, Canada},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/LCN52139.2021.9525000},
      theme = {iot|icn}
    }
    
               

  6. J. Alamos, P. Kietzmann, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “DSME-LoRa – A Flexible MAC for LoRa,” Proc. of 29th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2021), Poster Session. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Nov. 2021.


    Abstract: LoRa is a popular technology that enables long-range wireless communication (kilometers) at low energy consumption. The transmission exhibits low throughput and underlies duty cycle restrictions. Long on-air times (up to seconds) and range are susceptible to interference. In parallel, common LoRa-devices are battery driven and should mainly sleep. LoRaWAN is the system that defines the LoRa PHY, MAC, and a complete vertical stack. To deal with the above limitations, LoRaWAN imposes rigorous constraints, namely, a centralized network architecture that organizes media access, and heavily reduced downlink capacity. This makes it unusable for many deployments, control systems in particular. In this work, we combine IEEE 802.15.4 DSME and LoRa to facilitate node-to-node communication. We present a DSME-LoRa mapping scheme and contribute a simulation model for validating new LoRa use-cases. Our results show 100% packet delivery and predictable latencies irrespective of network size.


    
                 @inproceedings{aksw-dfml-21,
      author = {Alamos, Jose and Kietzmann, Peter and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{DSME-LoRa -- A Flexible MAC for LoRa}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 29th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP 2021), Poster Session},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
      year = {2021},
      month = nov,
      theme = {iot},
      note = {accepted for publication}
    }
    
               

  7. M. S. Lenders, C. Amsüss, C. Gündogan, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “DNS Queries over CoAP (DoC),” IETF, IETF Internet Draft – work in progress 01, Aug. 2021.


    Abstract: This document defines a protocol for sending DNS messages over the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). These CoAP messages are protected by DTLS-Secured CoAP (CoAPS) or Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments (OSCORE) to provide encrypted DNS message exchange for constrained devices in the Internet of Things (IoT).


    
                 @techreport{draft-core-doc,
      author = {Lenders, Martine S. and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{DNS Queries over CoAP (DoC)}},
      type = {IETF Internet Draft -- work in progress},
      institution = {IETF},
      number = {01},
      month = aug,
      year = {2021},
      url = {https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-lenders-dns-over-coap/},
      theme = {iot|nsec}
    }
    
               

  8. P. Kietzmann, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “A Guideline on Pseudorandom Number Generation (PRNG) in the IoT,” ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 112:1–112:38, Jul. 2021,


    Abstract: Random numbers are an essential input to many functions on the Internet of Things (IoT). Common use cases of randomness range from low-level packet transmission to advanced algorithms of artificial intelligence as well as security and trust, which heavily rely on unpredictable random sources. In the constrained IoT, though, unpredictable random sources are a challenging desire due to limited resources, deterministic real-time operations, and frequent lack of a user interface. In this paper, we revisit the generation of randomness from the perspective of an IoT operating system (OS) that needs to support general purpose or crypto-secure random numbers. We analyse the potential attack surface, derive common requirements, and discuss the potentials and shortcomings of current IoT OSs. A systematic evaluation of current IoT hardware components and popular software generators based on well-established test suits and on experiments for measuring performance give rise to a set of clear recommendations on how to build such a random subsystem and which generators to use.


    
                 @article{ksw-gpngi-21,
      author = {Kietzmann, Peter and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{A Guideline on Pseudorandom Number Generation (PRNG) in the IoT}},
      journal = {ACM Comput. Surv.},
      volume = {54},
      number = {6},
      pages = {112:1--112:38},
      month = jul,
      year = {2021},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      theme = {iot},
      url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3453159}
    }
    
               

Previous Work

The following list gives a short overview about previous publications of the PIVOT group, which stimulated this project.

  1. M. Rottleuthner, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Sense Your Power: The ECO Approach to Energy Awareness for IoT Devices,” ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 24:1–24:25, Mar. 2021,


    Abstract: Energy constrained sensor nodes can adaptively optimize their energy consumption if a continuous measurement is provided. This is of particular importance in scenarios of high dynamics such as with energy harvesting. Still, self-measuring of power consumption at reasonable cost and complexity is unavailable as a generic system service. In this paper, we present ECO, a hardware-software co-design that adds autonomous energy management capabilities to a large class of low-end IoT devices. ECO consists of a highly portable hardware shield built from inexpensive commodity components, and software integrated into the RIOT operating system. RIOT supports more than 200 popular microcontrollers. Leveraging this flexibility, we assembled a variety of sensor nodes to evaluate key performance properties for different device classes. An overview and comparison with related work shows how ECO fills the gap of in situ power attribution transparently for consumers and how it improves over existing solutions. We also report about two different real-world field trials, which validate our solution for long-term production use.


    
                 @article{rsw-sypea-21,
      author = {Rottleuthner, Michel and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Sense Your Power: The ECO Approach to Energy Awareness for IoT Devices}},
      journal = {ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems},
      pages = {24:1--24:25},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      month = mar,
      year = {2021},
      publisher = {ACM},
      theme = {iot},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3441643},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de/papers/rsw-sypea-21.pdf}
    }
    
               

  2. P. Kietzmann, L. Boeckmann, L. Lanzieri, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “A Performance Study of Crypto-Hardware in the Low-end IoT,” Proc. of 18th International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN). ACM, New York, 2021.


    Abstract: In this paper, we contribute a comprehensive resource analysis for widely used crypto primitives across different off-the-shelf IoT platforms, and quantify the performance impact of crypto hardware. This work builds on the newly designed crypto subsystem of the IoT operating system RIOT, which provides seamless crypto support across software and hardware components. Our evaluations show that (i) hardware-based crypto outperforms software by considerably over 100\,%, which is crucial for nodal lifetime. Despite, the memory consumption typically increases moderately. (ii) Hardware diversity, driver design, and software implementations heavily impact resource efficiency. (iii) External crypto-chips operate slowly on symmetric crypto-operations, but provide secure write-only memory for private credentials, which is unavailable on many platforms.


    
                 @inproceedings{kblsw-pschl-21,
      author = {Kietzmann, Peter and Boeckmann, Lena and Lanzieri, Leandro and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{A Performance Study of Crypto-Hardware in the Low-end IoT}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 18th International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN)},
      year = {2021},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York},
      theme = {nsec|iot},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de//papers/kblsw-pschl-21.pdf},
      slides = {../slides/kblsw-pschl-21.pdf},
      video = {https://youtu.be/Aqp-AassudM},
      code = {https://github.com/inetrg/EWSN-2021}
    }
    
               

  3. C. Gündogan, C. Amsüss, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “IoT Content Object Security with OSCORE and NDN: A First Experimental Comparison,” Proc. of 19th IFIP Networking Conference. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp. 19–27, 2020.


    Abstract: The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) challenges the end-to-end transport of the Internet by low power lossy links and gateways that perform protocol translations. Protocols such as CoAP or MQTT-SN are degraded by the overhead of DTLS sessions, which in common deployment protect content transfer only up to the gateway. To preserve content security end-to-end via gateways and proxies, the IETF recently developed Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments (OSCORE), which extends CoAP with content object security features commonly known from Information Centric Networks (ICN). This paper presents a comparative analysis of protocol stacks that protect request-response transactions. We measure protocol performances of CoAP over DTLS, OSCORE, and the information-centric Named Data Networking (NDN) protocol on a large-scale IoT testbed in single- and multi-hop scenarios. Our findings indicate that (a) OSCORE improves on CoAP over DTLS in error-prone wireless regimes due to omitting the overhead of maintaining security sessions at endpoints, and (b) NDN attains superior robustness and reliability due to its intrinsic network caches and hop-wise retransmissions.


    
                 @inproceedings{gasw-icoso-20,
      author = {G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{IoT Content Object Security with OSCORE and NDN: A First Experimental Comparison}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 19th IFIP Networking Conference},
      pages = {19--27},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
      year = {2020},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de/papers//papers/gasw-icoso-20.pdf},
      awards = {Best Paper Award},
      code = {https://github.com/inetrg/IFIP-Networking-2020},
      video = {https://youtu.be/QfBzYZBF3Ek},
      theme = {iot|icn|nsec}
    }
    
               

  4. P. F. Tehrani, J. H. Schiller, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “On Economic, Societal, and Political Aspects in ICN,” Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 155–157, 2020.


    Abstract: Information-centric networking (ICN), as an antithesis of host-centric networking, denotes a paradigm shift in communication networks. It introduces names to the network layer and favors de-localized content instead of addresses and hosts. ICN is an attempt to design a network tailored to demands of users who only care about data. The simplicity of this basic premise, however, turns out to be rather deceptive; a pitfall in waiting on the path of ICN to wide-scale deployment. Surely users care about data, but they also care about trust, accountability, private communication, and everything else that the current Internet provides beside mere content. This paper is a first attempt in pinpointing the missing non-technical aspects that are crucial to success of ICN as a viable replacement for the Internet.


    
                 @inproceedings{tssw-espai-20,
      author = {Tehrani, Pouyan Fotouhi and Schiller, Jochen H. and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W\"{a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{On Economic, Societal, and Political Aspects in ICN}},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking},
      pages = {155--157},
      year = {2020},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de/papers/tssw-espai-20.pdf},
      video = {https://youtu.be/nUitAUfWVF4},
      slides = {https://conferences.sigcomm.org/acm-icn/2020/assets/3-DP-3-Tehrani-Poster-1d32d058142db0e4d0235ec123719607bc4982e3cfcc420e09b5c7414f8b48a7.pdf},
      theme = {iot|icn}
    }
    
               

  5. C. Gündogan, C. Amsüss, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Toward a RESTful Information-Centric Web of Things: A Deeper Look at Data Orientation in CoAP,” Proc. of 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN). ACM, New York, pp. 77–88, Sep. 2020.


    Abstract: The information-centric networking (ICN) paradigm offers replication of autonomously verifiable content throughout a network, in which content is bound to names instead of hosts. This has proven beneficial in particular for the constrained IoT. Several approaches, the most prominent of which being Named Data Networking, propose access to named content directly on the network layer. Independently, the IETF CoAP protocol group started to develop mechanisms that support autonomous content processing and in-network storage. In this paper, we explore the emerging CoAP building blocks and how they can give rise to an information-centric network architecture for a new RESTful Web of Things. We discuss design options and measure characteristic performances of different network configurations, which deploy CoAP proxies and OSCORE content object security, and compare with NDN. Our findings indicate an almost continuous design space ranging from plain CoAP at the one end to NDN on the other.


    
                 @inproceedings{gasw-triwt-20,
      author = {G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Ams{\"u}ss, Christian and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Toward a RESTful Information-Centric Web of Things: A Deeper Look at Data Orientation in CoAP}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York},
      location = {Montreal, CA},
      year = {2020},
      month = sep,
      pages = {77--88},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de/papers/gasw-triwt-20.pdf},
      video = {https://youtu.be/S2x5UU4jVzA},
      slides = {https://conferences.sigcomm.org/acm-icn/2020/assets/4-3-gundogan-3cff810c07ebd9e3fe4d2734cb9cdecf26f94d1f6db608e669eee8d44182f977.pdf},
      theme = {iot|icn|nsec}
    }
    
               

  6. M. S. Lenders, C. Gündogan, T. C. Schmidt, and M. Wählisch, “Connecting the Dots: Selective Fragment Recovery in ICNLoWPAN,” Proc. of 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN). ACM, New York, pp. 70–76, Sep. 2020.


    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the benefits of integrating 6LoWPAN Selective Fragment Recovery (SFR) in ICNLoWPAN. We present a solution that allows for immediate fragment forwarding—a key feature of SFR—in combination with ICN caching. For this a \emphVirtual Reassembling Endpoint (VREP) is proposed which acts transparently as an SFR fragment forwarder while simultaneously collecting them. Once a datagram is complete, it is exposed to the content cache, effectively making the VREP the new fragmenting endpoint. Our proposal complies with current specs defined in the IETF/IRTF. Furthermore, we offer considerations to combine the reverse path forwarding schemes of both SFR and ICNLoWPAN and assess drawbacks and benefits. In preliminary experiments, we evaluate the network performance of combining ICNLoWPAN with SFR and VREP.


    
                 @inproceedings{lgsw-cdsfr-20,
      author = {Lenders, Martine S. and G{\"u}ndogan, Cenk and Schmidt, Thomas C. and W{\"a}hlisch, Matthias},
      title = {{Connecting the Dots: Selective Fragment Recovery in ICNLoWPAN}},
      booktitle = {Proc. of 7th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York},
      location = {Montreal, CA},
      year = {2020},
      month = sep,
      pages = {70--76},
      file = {http://ilab-pub.imp.fu-berlin.de//papers/lgsw-cdsfr-20.pdf},
      video = {https://youtu.be/kUvN8Av6XyE},
      slides = {https://conferences.sigcomm.org/acm-icn/2020/assets/4-2-Lenders-95914dded8a7bb44263954b97ca0852844e1545baeb945af72c3ca6576df2d5b.pdf},
      theme = {iot|icn|manet}
    }